Q.Nos. (1-4): Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow.
Most people can remember a phone number for upto thirty seconds. When this short amount of time elapses, however, the numbers are
erased from the memory. How did the information get there in the first place? Information that makes its way to the Short Term Memory
(STM) does so via the sensory storage area. The brain has a filter which only allows stimuli that is of immediate interest to pass on to the STM, also known as the working memory.
There is much debate about the capacity and duration of the short term memory. The most accepted theory comes from George A. Miller,
a cognitive psychologist who suggested that humans can remember approximately seven chunks of information. A chunk is defined as a
meaningful unit of information, such as a word or name rather than just a letter or number.
Modern theorists suggest that one can increase the capacity of the short term memory by chunking, or classifying similar information together. By organizing information, one can optimize the STM, and improve the chances of a memory being passed on to long term storage.
When making a conscious effort to memorize something, such as information for an exam, many people engage in "rote rehearsal". By repeating something over and over again, one is able to keep a memory alive. Unfortunately, this type of memory maintenance only succeeds if there are no interruptions. As soon as a person stops rehearsing the information, it has the tendency to disappear. When a pen and paper are not handy, people often attempt to remember a phone number by repeating it aloud. If the doorbell rings or the dog barks to come in before a person has the opportunity to make a phone call, he will likely forget the number instantly. Therefore, rote rehearsal is not an efficient way to pass information from the short term to long term memory. A better way is to practice "elaborate rehearsal". This involves assigning semantic meaning to a piece of information so that it can be filed along with other pre-existing long term memories.
Encoding information semantically also makes it more retrievable. Retrieving information can be done by recognition or recall. Humans can easily recall memories that are stored in the long term memory and used often; however, if a memory seems to be forgotten, it
may eventually be retrieved by prompting. The more cues a person is given (such as pictures), the more likely a memory can be retrieved. This is why multiple choice tests are often used for subjects that require a lot of memorization.
1. According to the passage, how do memories get transferred to the STM?
A) They revert from the long term memory.
B) They are filtered from the sensory storage area.
C) They get chunked when they enter the brain.
D) They enter via the nervous system.
2. Which of the following is NOT supported by the passage?
A) The working memory is the same as the short term memory.
B) A memory is kept alive through constant repetition.
C) Cues help people to recognize information.
D) Multiple choice exams are the most difficult.
3. How do theorists believe a person can remember more information in a short time?
A) By organizing it
B) By repeating it
C) By giving it a name
D) By drawing it
4. Why does the author mention a dog's bark?
A) To give an example of a type of memory
B) To provide a type of interruption
C) To prove that dogs have better memories than humans
D) To compare another sound that is loud like a doorbell
5. I shouted ..... him across the river?
Select the appropriate preposition.
A) at B) for C) to D) of
6. A man is walking down a road. There is a dog with ....... man.
Insert suitable article, if necessary.
A) a B) an C) the D) zero article
7. You've borrowed such a great deal of money from me lately. I need to ......... exactly how much you owe me. Locate the correct phrasal verb in the context.
A) make up B) put out C) work out D) clear up
8. I ......... come to the conclusion that nowadays nobody cares about anything. Choose the correct verb form to fill in the
A) will B) had C) do D) have
9. ......... they feel threatened, dogs sometimes display aggressive behaviour. Opt the best conjunction appropriate for the context.
A) Until B) During C) When D) Before
10. Find the sentence in the following which has more than one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.
A) We were exhausted, but we arrived in time for my father's birthday party.
B) Although he is now 79 years old, he still claims to be 65.
C) After it was all over, my dad claimed he knew we were planning something, but we think he was really surprised.
D) We drove from Mumbai to Cochin in one day.
11. “Carol, speak English.” Choose the right reported speech version.
A) He told Carol to speak in English.
B) He asked Carol to speak in English.
C) He pleaded Carol to speak in English.
D) He suggested Carol to speak in English.
12. They let us go. Find the correct transformation of voice.
A) We were let go.
B) We were let gone.
C) We had been let to go.
D) We were let to go.
13. Which of the following closing sentiments do experts say is
inappropriate in personal letters?
A) Warmly yours B) Lovingly C) Sincerely D) Devotedly
14. Choose the error free sentence.
A) Ramesh is elder than Vijay.
B) Chithra discussed about education.
C) Rohith is cleverer than any girl in the class.
D) Sunny is twelve years.
15. I do not think that it will rain tomorrow, Add the right question tag.
A) will it? B) do you? C) isn’t it? D) doesn’t it?
16. Listening quietly is quite difficult. Identify the part of speech of the word underlined.
A) Adverb B) Adjective C) Verb D) Preposition
17. Which is correct in its spelling?
A) supersede B) supercede C) superceed D) superscede
18. A funny imitation of a poem Pick the right one-word substitute.
A) Caricature B) Parody C) Mockery D) Soliloquy
19. He (A) / will leave (B) / you (C) / in lunch (D). Find the error part.
A) D B) B C) C D) A
20. Rachana is always honest. Label the type of adverb underlined.
A) Adverb of Time
B) Adverb of Frequency
C) Adverb of Degree
D) None of these.
21. There is a law in France, which says that only the family has the right to decide what ....... or not known about the health of
a patient. Choose the right option.
A) must be known
B) must have known
C) must have been known
D) must be knowing
22. I would stay away from that guy if I were you, he has a screw loose. Find out the suitable selection in tune with the part underlined.
A) is dangerous. B) is annoying. C) is crazy D) is a flirt.
23. If I had money, I could spend it. Decide the sense of the clause underlined.
A) I would be able to spend it.
B) I would possibly spend it.
C) I will spend it.
D) I think about spending it.
24. This test is very difficult for children aged fifteen and I'm afraid they will have to ... ...... it. Choose the best fit.
A) adjust B) fit C) adapt D) alter
ANSWERS : 1) B 2) D 3) A 4) B 5) C 6) C 7) C 8) D 9) C 10) C 11) A 12) A 13) A 14) C 15) B 16) A 17) A 18) B 19) A 20) B 21) A 22) C 23) A 24) C.