Following are model questions and answers for Senior Inter Economics Unit 3 (Population and Human Resource Development). The Intermediate Second Year students from Andhra Pradesh can practice these model / practice questions to get good marks in the final IPE examinations.
1. Explain the theory of demographic transition.
Ans: Development of any country depends on the quantity and quality of human resources i.e. population. There are two important theories on population. They are demographic transition theory and optimum theory of population.
THE THEORY OF DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION:
The theory of demographic transition explains the relationship between birth rates, death rates and economic development. It was explained by T.R. Malthus.
According to this theory, every country passes through three stages of demographic transition. They are:
First Stage: This stage is characterized by high birth rates and death rates. Poor diet, absence of medical facilities, social beliefs etc. are the reasons for it. Hence the population is more or less stable. This stage was prevailed in India before 1921.
Second Stage: This stage is characterized by high birth rates and low death rates, hence there is a rapid growth of population. Improvement in the standard of living, diet condition, medical facilities etc reduce death rates and low level education, social backwardness etc. results in high birth rates. This stage was prevailing in India since 1921.
Third Stage: In this stage the death and birth rates were controlled due to the development of economy. Hence the population is optimum level. Many developed countries are in this stage.
2. What are the reasons for population explosion in India? List out measures.
Ans: Population of India
As on 2011, November 1 total population of India is 121 crores. It is 17 per cent of world population with 2.4 per cent share of land area of the world. According to 2011 census, the sex ratio is 940 : 1000 and density of population is 382 persons per square km in India. India's population growth rate was rapidly increased after 1921. So 1921 is known as great dividing year of population.
Population Explosion in India
When birth rates exceeds death rates during a particular period of time is called population explosion. Now India is suffering with population explosion. High birth rates and low death rates are the reason for it.
Causes for Low Death Rates:
Eradication of famines: After independence, government of India controlled famines and droughts through various policies and minimised mortality rate.
Control of epidemics: The epidemics such as Malaria, Cholera, Small fox etc. were controlled and reduced the death rates.
Other Factors: Improvement in standard of living, safe drinking water, education, expanded medical facilities etc. reduced the mortality rate.
Causes for High Birth Rates:
Predominance of agriculture: In an agrarian economy, even every child of the family considered as labour, they wish to have more children.
Slow Urbanisation: The process of urbanisation in slow in India and it has failed to generate social forces which control birth rates and promote small families.
Universality of marriage: Marriage is both a religious and social necessity in India. It leads to high birth rates.
Early marriage: Women in India are getting marriage at quite young age. It prolongs the child bearing period.
Religious and social beliefs: Most of Indians desire to have more children as a social and religious belief even they do not have economic power. They treat every child as a god gift.
Joint family system: In a joint family system, the total economic burden carried by earning members only and not by young couples. They get children even they have no financial capacity.
Measures to control population explosion:
1. Expansion of industrial sector
2. Removal of poverty
3. Development of education
4. Improving women status
5. Raising minimum age of marriage
6. Family planning programmes
7. Incentives and disincentives
8. Establishment of family planning centres etc
3. Elucidate the new population policy - 2000 of India.
Ans: Population Policy - 2000
To control population growth, the govt. of India has announced a policy on population in the year 2000 to stabilize the population by 2045.
1. Reduce MMR to below 100 per 1 lakh live births
2. Reduce IMR to below 30 per 1 thousand live births
3. Universal immunisation against all preventable diseases
4. To achieve 100 percent safe deliveries in hospitals
5. Access to information regarding AIDS, prevention and control of communicable diseases.
6. Incentives to adopt two-child small family norms
7. Strict enforcement of child marriage restraint act
8. Raising the age of marriage for girls not earlier than 18 years and for boys 20 years
9. Special reward for women who marry after 21 years and apted birth control methods after 2 children
10. Health insurance coverage for BPL families who undergo sterilization after having 2 children
4. Explain the Occupational Distribution of population in India.
Ans: It refers to the number or ratio of workforce participation among various occupations in the country. Occupations are classified into three categories. They are
Primary Sector / Occupations:
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, animal husbandary, poultry, plantation etc. are collectively known as primary occupations. At present 56.7 per cent in India and 64.6 per cent of labour force is engaged in A.P. in this occupations.
Activities related to manufacturing industries including small scale, cottage, medium and large scale industries are collectively known as secondary occupations. 17.6 per cent in India and 13 per cent of labour force engaged in A.P. in this occupations.
Trade, transport, communication, banking, education, health and other services are collectively known as tertiary occupations. 25.7 percent in India and 22.4 per cent of labour force engaged in A.P. in this occupations.
5. Explain the various Health Indicators.
Ans: Health indicators play an important role in the development of human resources. There are three indicators.
Life expectancy: It refers to the number of years an average a person can live. It is 63.9 years for males and 66.9 years for females in India.
Maternal Mortality Rate: It refers to number of delivery deaths among 1 lakh women in a year. It is 301 per 10,000 live births in India.
Infant Mortality Rate: It refers to the ratio of the number of deaths among the 1000 born child in a year. It is 63 per 1000 in India.
6. Explain about NRHM.
Ans: National Rural Health Mission (NRHM):
This programme was introduced in 2005 to increase access and utilization of quality health by strengthening health infrastructure.
1. To provide over 5 lakh ASHA workers per 1000 population by 2008.
2. To make it function nearly 1.75 lakh sub centres 2 ANMs by 2010.
3. To provide 24 hours services in all PHCs with 3 trained staff nurses in all days by 2010.
4. To establish 6500 Community Health Centres with 7 specialists and 9 staff nurses by 2012.
5. To establish 1800 Taluk hospitals and 600 district hospitals by 2012.
6. Provide Mobile Medical Units for each district by 2009.
National Urban Health Mission (NUHM): It was introduced in 2005 to meet the health needs of urban poor making available primary health care services to them. It will cover all cities with a population of 1 lakh.
Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY): It was launched in 2005. Its main objective was to encourage pregnant women for safe institutional delivery, which reduce MMR and IMR. It was 100 percent centrally sponsored programme, focussing on both maternal and child health.
7. What are the health programmes implementing in A.P.
Ans: Health Programmes in A.P.
1. The family planning programme was started in 1951 focusing on women and child health.
2. The child survival and safe motherhood programmed introduced in 1992-93.
3. Launched NRHM in 2005 to increase quality of health.
4. The 24 hours mother and child health programme was started in 1997-98.
5. Family Planning Insurance Scheme introduced in 2000 to provide insurance.
6. Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) was started during 2005-06.
7. Rogi Kalyan Samithi was introduced in 2006 to improve, upgrade and modernise hospitals.
8. Rural Emergency Transport Scheme (108) started to ensure easy access to hospital for rural people.
9. Govt. of A.P. has been implementing 'Arogya Sree' scheme from 2007.
8. Explain the role of education in economic development.
Ans: Role of education in economic development:
Education is an instrument to convert a man into complete man. According to Todaro and Smith, education contributes more to economic growth in all countries.
- Education promotes economic growth and development.
- Education reduces the income inequalities.
- Education plays important role in rural development.
- Education helps in modernizing and revolutionizing way of thinking and promotes family planning.
- Provide required skilled man power to the economy.
- Promotes health conditions.
- Promotes political stability and competent leadership.
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA): It was introduced during 2001-02 with an aim to provide universal elementary education for all children in the age group of 6 to 14 years by 2010. It intends to fill up social, regional and gender gaps. It has been renamed as 'RAJIV VIDYA MISSION' in Andhra Pradesh.