B.Tech Programming Language – Syntax and Semantics

1) Write short notes on lexemes, language recognizers and language generators.
2) Distinguish between 2 mathematical models of a language description.
3) A concise and understandable description of a programming language is essential to languageā€™s success. Comment on this.
4) What is BNF notation? Explain with examples.
5) Give BNF notation for identifier , for loop, while loop in C. Give the corresponding syntax graph.
6) What is grammar? What is derivation? Give program of a simple grammar? Give the derivation of the above program?
7) Explain with example how operator associativity can be incorporated in grammars.
8) What purpose do predicates serve in an attribute grammar?
9) What is the use of attribute grammar? Explain.
10) What are the differences between synthesized and inherited attributes? Explain .
11) What are the difficulties in using an attribute grammar to describe all of the syntax and static semantics of a contemporary language?
12) What do you mean by static semantics? Give examples of static rules that are difficult and impossible to describe with BNF.
13) Describe the basic concepts of denotational semantics.
14) In what way do operational semantics differ from denotational semantics.
15) Define axiomatic semantics. Comment on its applicability.
16) What is the significance of mathematical logic in the context of axiomatic semantics. Explain with examples.
17) What is the significance of denotational semantics in describing the meaning of programs. Explain with examples.

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