AP Jr. Inter English Important Study Material

1. ‘Most complex problems do have a solution’. Explain how the girl in the story used lateral thinking to come up with a solution for her
problem.
A: The essay “Thinking out of the Box: Lateral Thinking” is adapted from an article on the internet. The essay explains the significance
of lateral thinking in our daily life. It teaches us to think ‘out of the box’ or think laterally to solve even the most complex
problems. Edward de Bono is regarded as the father of the concept of ‘Lateral Thinking’.

Long ago a farmer owed a large sum of money to a village moneylender. The moneylender was old and ugly. He fancied the farmer’s beautiful daughter. So he made a proposal that he would forgo the farmer’s debt if he could marry the farmer’s daughter. He told them that he would put a black pebble and a white pebble into an empty money bag. If the girl picked the black pebble, she would become his wife and her father’s debt would be written off. But if she picked the white pebble she need not marry him and her father’s debt would still be written off.

Having known the fact that the money-lender had kept both the pebbles of black colour in the bag, she picked one but pretended to drop it. She told the money-lender that since the pebble left in the bag was black, she must have picked the white. Thus, the girl outwitted the moneylender with her lateral thinking.

Annotation
1. When a person puts on a hat he or she plays the role that belongs to that hat. This makes it a game where individuals are engaged to
contribute all kinds of ideas under diverse hats. (Or)
2. With the six hats, instead of confrontation there is supportive scrutiny of an issue, which is useful where there are fierce arguments, bickering or obstinacy.

Reference: These lines are taken from the essay ‘Thinking out of the
Box: Lateral Thinking’ an adaptation from an article on the internet.
Edward de Bono is regarded as the father of the concept of ‘Lateral
Thinking’.

Context: The author says these words while explaining the advantages of Edward de Bono’s concept of using six hats in a group discussion.

Meaning: Edward de Bono’s main contribution has been the concept of using six hats each representing a colour. Each colour symbolizes a particular style of thinking or approach to a problem. A white hat is worn when we want to find facts and figures. To understand
emotions, intuition and feelings, we can use a red hat. We may sport a yellow hat to assess the advantages and benefits. We make use of a green hat to study explorations and alternatives before us. We put on a black hat when we want to make a judgement. A blue hat is used when we want to think about thinking. Each of these hats stands for a particular thinking technique, especially in a group discussion, where usually one refuses to accept another person’s point of view. But by wearing several hats, there will be no severe arguments and one can look at various options neutrally.

Comment: The essay is an inspiring example to the students who appear for competitive exams and participate in group discussions.

Paragraph Question
1. “A true friend is someone who thinks that you are a good egg
even though he knows that you are slightly cracked.” said
Bernard Meltzer. List all the qualities a true friend should
have, according to Kahlil Gibran.
A: The poem “On Friendship’’ is taken from the book ‘The Prophet’ written by Kahlil Gibran. When questioned by a student on the subject
of friendship, the poet depicts the virtues and advantages of having friends. Only a true friend can know the virtues of his friend. He always maintains a positive attitude towards his friend. He sees only the brighter side of his friend. A friend is a gift of God. He is God’s way of answering our needs. The bond of friendship with love begets gratitude. A friend acts like a board that provides strong support in all times. Just as a fireside keeps us warm in
cold, a friend stands by us in turbulent times. One can frankly agree or disagree with a friend. A true friend can read our thoughts, desires and expectations even if we do not express them. A mountain is seen better from a long distance rather than from the top. Similarly we can realize the importance and greatness of a
friend in his absence. There should not be any selfish motive in real friendship. We should reserve the best for the friend. We should not go to a friend only to dawdle our time away. On the contrary, we should meet him when we have hours to live. We can share our joys and sorrows with an open heart with a friend. By
doing so, we can refresh our heart like the morning dew.

Annotation
1. For in the dew of little things the heart finds its morning and is refreshed. Reference: These lines are taken from the poem “On Friendship’’ taken from the book ‘The Prophet’ written by Kahlil Gibran.

Context: The poet says these words while praising the virtues and advantages of friendship.

Meaning: A friend is a gift of God. He is God’s way of answering our needs. The bond of friendship with love begets gratitude. A friend
supports us in all times. One can frankly agree or disagree with a friend. A true friend can read our thoughts, desires and expectations
even if we do not express them. A mountain looks more beautiful from a long distance. Similarly, the importance of a friend is realized more in his absence. There should not be any selfish motive in real friendship. If we open our heart and share our joys and sorrows with a friend, it can refresh our heart like the morning dew.

Comment: The poet uses apt similes to convey his thoughts and ideas well.

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