AP Jr. Inter Botany Important Study Material

2 Marks Questions
Q: Give the scientific name of mango. Identify the generic name and specific epithet.
Mango - Mangifera indica
Mangifera - generic name
indica - specific epithet

Q: Which is the largest botanical garden in the world? Name a few well known botanical gardens in India.
A: Kew Botanical garden (England) is the largest in the world.
Indian botanical garden (Howrah) and National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow are well known in India.

Q: Define the terms couplet and lead in taxonomic key.
A: A pair of contrasting characters is a couplet. Each statement in a key is called a lead.

Q: What is the principle underlying the use of cyanobacteria in agricultural fields for crop improvement?
A: Cyanobacteria like Nostoc and Anabaena contain heterocysts and can fix atmospheric nitrogen. Hence they are used in agricultural
fields for crop improvement.

Q: Give the main criteria used for classification by Whittaker.
A: Cell structure, thallus organization, mode of nutrition, reproduction and phylogenetic relationships are the main criteria used for classification by Whittaker.

Q: Who is popularly known as father of Botany? What was the book written by him?
A: Theophrastus. de Historia Plantarum.

Q: Which group of plants is called vascular cryptogams? Name the branch of Botany which deals with them?
A: Pteridophytes. Pteridology.

Q: What is paleobotany? What is its use?
A: Paleobotany is the study of fossil plants. It helps in understanding the course of evolution in plants.

Q: Name the stored food materials found in Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae.
A: Laminarin and mannital are the stored food materials in
Phaeophyceae. Floridean starch is the stored food in Rhodophyceae.

Q: Name the gymnosperms which contain mycorrhiza and corolloid
roots respectively.
A: Mycorrhiza are found in Pinus. Corolloid roots are found in Cycas.

Q: Define venation. How do dicots differ from monocots with respect to venation?
A: The arrangement of veins and veinlets in the leaf lamina is called venation. Dicots show reticulate venation in the leaves and monocots show parallel venation.

Q: What is meant by parthenocarpic fruit? How is it useful?
A: The fruit formed without fertilization is called parthenocarpic fruit. It produces seedless fruits which are used in juice, jams and jelly preparations.

Q: Which of the following are monoecious and dioecious organisms. a. date palm b. coconut c. Chara d. Marchantia.
A: Date palm - dioecious
Coconut - monoecious
Chara - monoecious
Marchantia - dioecious

Q: What do the following parts of a flower develop into after fertilization? a. ovary b. stamens c. ovules d. calyx
A: Ovary - fruit
Stamens - fall off
Ovules - seeds
Calyx - falls off ( In plants like Solanum it is persistant after fertilization).

Q: Rearrange the following events of sexual reproduction in the
sequence in which they occur in a flowering plant: Embryogenesis, fertilization, gametogenesis, pollination.
A: Gametogenesis →Pollination → Fertilization → Embryogenesis.

4 Marks Questions
Q: Explain in brief the scope of Botany in relation to agriculture, horticulture and medicine.
A: Knowledge of botany lead to experiments in hybridization and genetic engineering.
1. Knowledge of plant breeding helps to develop hybrid varieties of rice, wheat, sugarcane etc.
2. Mineral nutrition, plant hormones, seed dormancy, plant pathology etc are studied in botany and help in improving crops, and crop yields.
3. A knowledge of plant pathology helps in identification, prevention and eradication of plant diseases.
4. Increasing the shelf-life of vegetables and leafy vegetables, artificial ripening of fruits is possible with plant growth hormones.
5. Botany helps in development of industries like cotton, paper, pharmacy, sugar etc.
6. Medicinal plants are used in human and animal healthcare.
7. Plant science is the basis for ayurvedic pharmacies.

Q: Give the salient features and importance of chrysophytes?
A: Chrysophytes belong to the kingdom protista.
1. This group includes diatoms and golden algae (desmids).
2. They may be freshwater or marine, microscopic and photosynthetic.
3. The cell wall forms a shell with a epitheca and hypotheca made up of silica.
4. Based on symmetry the diatoms may belong to centrales and pennales.
5. They reproduce asexually by binary fission and sexually by production of auxospores.

Importance of chrysophytes:
1. They form diatomaceous earth (kiselguhr) used for polishing and filtration of oils and syrups.
2. The diatoms are the chief producers in the
seas and oceans.

Q: List the changes observed in angiosperm flower subsequent to pollination and fertilization. A: After pollination and fertilization the following changes are observed in a angiosperm
1. Sepals, petals, stamens and style wither and fall off. ✫ Ovary develops into a fruit.
2. Ovules develop into seeds.
3. Zygote develops into an embryo.
4. Primary endosperm nucleus develops into endosperm.

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